Publications that Inspired the MathTalk Project

Vicarious Learning     Design Principles     Online Learning

Vicarious Learning

Learning by observing video- or audio-taped presentations of other people engaged in dialogue.

Boesdorfer, S., Lorsbach, A., & Morey, M. (2011). Using a vicarious learning event to create a conceptual change in preservice teachers’ understandings of the seasons. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 15(1). Retrieved from

Chi, M., Roy, M., & Hausmann, R. (2008). Observing tutorial dialogues collaboratively: Insights about human tutoring effectiveness from vicarious learning. Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 32(2), 301–341.

Cox, R., McKendree, J., Tobin, R., Lee, J., & Mayes, T. (1999). Vicarious learning from dialogue and discourse. Instructional science, 27(6), 431–458.

Craig, S. D., Chi, M. T. H., & VanLehn, K. (2009). Improving classroom learning by collaboratively observing human tutoring videos while problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 779–789.

Craig, S. D., Sullins, J., Witherspoon, A., & Gholson, B. (2010). The deep-level-reasoning-question effect: The role of dialogue and deep-level-reasoning questions during vicarious learning. Cognition and Instruction, 24(4), 565–591.

Driscoll, D. M., Craig, S. D., Gholson, B., Ventura, M., Hu, X., & Graesser, A. C. (2003). Vicarious learning: Effects of overhearing dialog and monologue-like discourse in a virtual tutoring session. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29(4), 431-450.

Fox Tree, J. E. (1999). Listening in on monologues and dialogues. Discourse Processes, 27(1), 35–53.

Gholson, B., & Craig, S. D. (2006). Promoting constructive activities that support vicarious learning during computer-based instruction. Educational Psychology Review, 18(2), 119–139.

Kolikant, Y. B. D., & Broza, O. (2011). The effect of using a video clip presenting a contextual story on low-achieving students’ mathematical discourse. Educational studies in mathematics, 76(1), 23-47.

Mayes, T., Dineen, F., McKendree, J., & Lee, J. (2002). Learning from watching others learn. In C. Steeples & C. Jones (Eds.), Networked learning: perspectives and issues (pp. 213–227). London: Springer-Verlag.

McKendree, J., Stenning, K., Mayes, T., Lee, J., & Cox, R. (1998). Why observing a dialogue may benefit learning.  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 14(2), 110-119.

Muller, D. (2008). Designing effective multimedia for physics education. University of Sydney Australia. Retrieved from

Muller, D.A., Bewes, J., Sharma, M. D., & Reimann, P. (2008). Saying the wrong thing: improving learning with multimedia by including misconceptions: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(2), 144–155.

Muller, D., Lee, K., & Sharma, M. (2004). Coherence or interest: Which is most important in online media learning? Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 24(2), 211–221.

Muller, D., Sharma, M. D., Eklund, J., & Reimann, P. (2007). Conceptual change through vicarious learning in an authentic physics setting. Instructional Science, 35(6), 519–533.

Muller, D., Sharma, M. D., & Reimann, P. (2008). Raising cognitive load with linear multimedia to promote conceptual change. Science Education, 92(2), 278–296.

Wegerif, R. (2007). Dialogic education and technology: Expanding the space of learning. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Series (Vol. 7). Berlin, Germany: Springer

Design Principles

For effective online learning environments.

Jonassen, D.H. (1995). Supporting communities of learners with technology: A vision for integrating technology with learning in schools. Educational Technology, 60-63.

Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Toward a design theory of problem solving. Educational technology research and development, 48(4), 63-85.

Karppinen, P. (2005). Meaningful learning with digital and online videos: Theoretical perspectives. AACE Journal, 13(3), 233–250.

Kearsley, G., & Shneiderman, B. (1998). Engagement theory: A framework for technology-based teaching and learning. Educational Technology, 38(5), 20-23.

Monthienvichienchai, R., & Sasse, M. A. (2004). Computer support for vicarious learning. University of London. Retrieved from

Stiles, M. J. (2000, April). Effective learning and the virtual learning environment. In Proceedings of the European University Information Systems Congress (pp.171-180). Retrieved from

Sweller, J. (2005). Implications of cognitive load theory for multimedia leaning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 19-30). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Underwood, J. S., Hoadley, C., Lee, H. S., Hollebrands, K., DiGiano, C., & Renninger, K. A. (2005). IDEA: Identifying design principles in educational applets. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(2), 99-112.

Young, C., & Asensio, M. (2002, March). Looking through three ‘I’s: The pedagogic use of streaming video. In The Networked Learning Conference Proceedings (pp. 628-635). Retrieved from

Online Learning

Bowers, J., Passentino, G., & Connors, C. (2012). What is the complement to a procedural video? Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 31(3), 213–248.

Hamilton, E., & Harding, N. (2010). Tablet computing, creativity and teachers as applied microgenetic analysis: A paradigm shift in math teacher professional development. In R. H. Reed & D. A. Berque (Eds.), Impact of tablet PCs and pen-based technology on education: Going mainstream (pp. 47-56). Purdue University Press.

Khan, S. (2012). The one world school house: Education reimagined. New York, NY: Hachette Book Group.

Lin, G. & Michko, G. (2010). Beyond YouTube: Repurposing online video for education. In Z. W. Abas, I. Jung, & J. Luca (Eds.), Proceedings of Global Learn (Vol. 2010, No. 1, pp. 257-267). AACE.

Meyer, D. (2014). What students do (and don’t do) in Khan Academy. Retrieved from

Rosa, M., & Lerman, S. (2011). Researching online mathematics education: opening a space for virtual learner identities. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 78(1), 69–90.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development. (2009). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from