MathTalk for Researchers

Publications that Inspired the MathTalk Project

Vicarious Learning (Part 1)

Vicarious Learning (Part 2)

Design Principles

Online Learning

Vicarious Learning (Part 1)


Learning by observing video- or audio-taped presentations of other people engaged in dialogue.


Boesdorfer, S., Lorsbach, A., & Morey, M. (2011). Using a vicarious learning event to create a conceptual change in preservice teachers’ understandings of the seasons. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 15(1). Retrieved from http://ejse.southwestern.edu/article/view/7381

Chi, M., Roy, M., & Hausmann, R. (2008). Observing tutorial dialogues collaboratively: Insights about human tutoring effectiveness from vicarious learning. Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 32(2), 301–341.

Cox, R., McKendree, J., Tobin, R., Lee, J., & Mayes, T. (1999). Vicarious learning from dialogue and discourse. Instructional science, 27(6), 431–458.

Craig, S. D., Chi, M. T. H., & VanLehn, K. (2009). Improving classroom learning by collaboratively observing human tutoring videos while problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 779–789.

Craig, S. D., Sullins, J., Witherspoon, A., & Gholson, B. (2010). The deep-level-reasoning-question effect: The role of dialogue and deep-level-reasoning questions during vicarious learning. Cognition and Instruction, 24(4), 565–591.

Driscoll, D. M., Craig, S. D., Gholson, B., Ventura, M., Hu, X., & Graesser, A. C. (2003). Vicarious learning: Effects of overhearing dialog and monologue-like discourse in a virtual tutoring session. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29(4), 431-450.

Fox Tree, J. E. (1999). Listening in on monologues and dialogues. Discourse Processes, 27(1), 35–53.

Gholson, B., & Craig, S. D. (2006). Promoting constructive activities that support vicarious learning during computer-based instruction. Educational Psychology Review, 18(2), 119–139.


Vicarious Learning (Part 2)


Learning by observing video- or audio-taped presentations of other people engaged in dialogue.


Kolikant, Y. B. D., & Broza, O. (2011). The effect of using a video clip presenting a contextual story on low-achieving students’ mathematical discourse. Educational studies in mathematics, 76(1), 23-47.

Mayes, T., Dineen, F., McKendree, J., & Lee, J. (2002). Learning from watching others learn. In C. Steeples & C. Jones (Eds.), Networked learning: perspectives and issues (pp. 213–227). London: Springer-Verlag.

McKendree, J., Stenning, K., Mayes, T., Lee, J., & Cox, R. (1998). Why observing a dialogue may benefit learning.  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 14(2), 110-119.

Muller, D. (2008). Designing effective multimedia for physics education. University of Sydney Australia. Retrieved from http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/super/theses/PhD(Muller).pdf

Muller, D.A., Bewes, J., Sharma, M. D., & Reimann, P. (2008). Saying the wrong thing: improving learning with multimedia by including misconceptions: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(2), 144–155.

Muller, D., Lee, K., & Sharma, M. (2004). Coherence or interest: Which is most important in online media learning? Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 24(2), 211–221.

Muller, D., Sharma, M. D., Eklund, J., & Reimann, P. (2007). Conceptual change through vicarious learning in an authentic physics setting. Instructional Science, 35(6), 519–533.

Muller, D., Sharma, M. D., & Reimann, P. (2008). Raising cognitive load with linear multimedia to promote conceptual change. Science Education, 92(2), 278–296.

Wegerif, R. (2007). Dialogic education and technology: Expanding the space of learning. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Series (Vol. 7). Berlin, Germany: Springer

Design Principles


For effective online learning environments.


Jonassen, D.H. (1995). Supporting communities of learners with technology: A vision for integrating technology with learning in schools. Educational Technology, 60-63.

Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Toward a design theory of problem solving. Educational technology research and development, 48(4), 63-85.

Karppinen, P. (2005). Meaningful learning with digital and online videos: Theoretical perspectives. AACE Journal, 13(3), 233–250.

Kearsley, G., & Shneiderman, B. (1998). Engagement theory: A framework for technology-based teaching and learning. Educational Technology, 38(5), 20-23.

Monthienvichienchai, R., & Sasse, M. A. (2004). Computer support for vicarious learning. University of London. Retrieved from http://hornbeam.cs.ucl.ac.uk/hcs/people../documents/Angela%20Publications/2002/Computer%20Support%20for%20Vicarious%20Learning.pdf

Stiles, M. J. (2000, April). Effective learning and the virtual learning environment. In Proceedings of the European University Information Systems Congress (pp.171-180). Retrieved from http://www.staffs.ac.uk/COSE/cose10/posnan.html

Sweller, J. (2005). Implications of cognitive load theory for multimedia leaning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 19-30). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Underwood, J. S., Hoadley, C., Lee, H. S., Hollebrands, K., DiGiano, C., & Renninger, K. A. (2005). IDEA: Identifying design principles in educational applets. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(2), 99-112.

Young, C., & Asensio, M. (2002, March). Looking through three ‘I’s: The pedagogic use of streaming video. In The Networked Learning Conference Proceedings (pp. 628-635). Retrieved from http://www.networkedlearningconference.org.uk/past/nlc2002/proceedings/papers/47.htm


Online Learning


Bowers, J., Passentino, G., & Connors, C. (2012). What is the complement to a procedural video? Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 31(3), 213–248.

Hamilton, E., & Harding, N. (2010). Tablet computing, creativity and teachers as applied microgenetic analysis: A paradigm shift in math teacher professional development. In R. H. Reed & D. A. Berque (Eds.), Impact of tablet PCs and pen-based technology on education: Going mainstream (pp. 47-56). Purdue University Press.

Khan, S. (2012). The one world school house: Education reimagined. New York, NY: Hachette Book Group.

Lin, G. & Michko, G. (2010). Beyond YouTube: Repurposing online video for education. In Z. W. Abas, I. Jung, & J. Luca (Eds.), Proceedings of Global Learn (Vol. 2010, No. 1, pp. 257-267). AACE.

Meyer, D. (2014). What students do (and don’t do) in Khan Academy. Retrieved from http://blog.mrmeyer.com/2014/what-students-do-and-dont-do-in-khan-academy/

Rosa, M., & Lerman, S. (2011). Researching online mathematics education: opening a space for virtual learner identities. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 78(1), 69–90.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development. (2009). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence-based-practices/finalreport.pdf



This project is supported by the National Science Foundation through Award DRL-1416789.

The views expressed here are not necessarily those of the NSF.


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